The Russian government is planning to propose a number of alternatives to discourage the Mongolian government’s plans of building a hydroelectric power plant (HEPP) on the Selenga river, which flows into Lake Baikal in Russia. A major alternative to the HEPP suggested by Russia in April 2017 is the modernisation of the existing power transmission lines and construction of new 500 kV or above power transmission lines, with a capacity of 1 GW, to supply electricity to Mongolia and its transit to China. Among other alternatives, the government is also likely to put forward a proposal for the construction of advanced coal-powered thermal power stations, and the use of renewable energy sources. The HEPP on the Selenga river is aimed to resolve Mongolia’s energy deficit issues. However, Russia has repeatedly warned the Mongolian government about significant ecological risks of the project and has also offered to compensate the power deficit in Mongolia.